القائمة الرئيسية

التصميم التعليمي وتاريخه

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يعرف التصميم التعليمي بأنه : عملية منطقية تتناول الإجراءات اللازمة لتنظيم التعليم ،وتطويره، وتنفيذه ،وتقويمه بما يتفق والخصائص الإدراكية للمتعلم ،وذلك بغرض تحقيق أهداف تعليمية محددة، وتعد عملية التصميم من أهم المهام الأساسية التي تقوم بها تكنولوجيا التعليم لتفعيل الموقف التعليمي بكل عناصره .
ويذكر قطامي وآخرون(2008 ، 5) : فيعرف التصميم التعليمي بأنه دراسة علمية تكنولوجية لأسس التعليم والتعلم وتحديد أفضل الطرق والأساليب التدريسية المناسبة لتحقيق الأهداف التدريسية المحددة (قطامي وآخرون، ، ويعرف “ عبد الفتاح، 2004″التصميم التعليمي بأنه بناء هندسي للموقف التعليمي يراعي كل متطلباته واحتياجاته في دراسة تفصيلية لكل العوامل المؤثرة فيه والمتأثرة به والتي تعتمد على قاعدة معلومات ثرية وعلى نتائج البحوث في التربية وعلم النفس والمناهج وتكنولوجيا التعليم لعلاج مشكلاته وتطويره وتجويده (إبراهيم عبد الفتاح يونس، 2004 ، 6)، كما أن التصميم التعليمي هو بمثابة القلب النابض لأي موقف أو منتج أو برنامج تعليمي، ومبادئ التصميم التعليمي تشكل في مجملها نقطة التحول في تصميم البرامج التعليمية من مجرد كونها برامج إلى كونها برامج تعليمية والفارق هنا كبير للغاية ( عزمي، 2001، 17).
ومن خلال قراءات الباحثة يمكن القول بأن التصميم التعليمي هو العلم الذي يبحث في الوصول إلى أفضل الطرق التعليمية الفعالة وتطويرها في أشكال خرائط مقننة،وتعد دليلاً لواضع المناهج ، وتعد أيضاً دليلاً للمعلم أثناء عملية التعليم لتحقيق الأهداف التعليمية المنشودة،وهذه الأشكال والخرائط المقننة تعد التصميمات الهندسية لعملية البناء المراد تنفيذها، والذي يقوم بذلك هو المصمم التعليمي وهو يقابل المهندس المعماري عندما يرسم خارطة البناء قبل البدء في تنفيذ وتشييد المبنى، وكذلك المصمم التعليمي فهو يرسم خارطة المنهج التعليمي ويقدمها إلى مطور المناهج أو إلى المعلم،حيث يقدم للمعلم خارطة أو شكلاً مقنناً يتضمن أفضل الطرق التعليمية لتعليم محتوى دراسي معين،أو محتوى درس تعليمي في حصة دراسية واحدة .

 الأسس النظرية للتصميم التعليمي:

ونقلاً عن الجزار (2006م ، 7-10 ) حيث يذكر بأنه نظراً لأهمية بيئة التعلم بالنسبة لمصممي منظومات التعلم (Learning Systems )؛ فقد تناولها المتخصصون في تكنولوجيا التعليم بالتحليل بهدف توضيح الأسس التي تدخل فى تصميمها، وذلك لأن التعلم الفعال يتوقف على مدى وعى المصمم التعليمي (أخصائى تكنولوجيا التعليم) بتلك الأسس التى تشكل بيئة التعلم، ويعد “هانافين” وزملاؤه (Hannafin et al. ، 1997) من الذين اهتموا ببيئة التعلم وأسس تصميمها، فقد حددوا نموذجاً من خمسة أسس تتفاعل مع بعضها عند تصميم بيئة التعلم هى : الأسس السيكولوجية (Psychological) والتعليمية /التدريسية (Pedagogical) والتكنولوجية (Technological) والثقافية(Cultural) وأخيراً البرجماتية (Pragmatic)، ويأخذ النموذج شكل خمسة دوائر متقاطعة كما يمثلها شكل(3)، وسيقوم الباحث باستعراض هذا النموذج باعتباره الخطوة الأولى للنموذج الشامل الذى يرمى إلى بنائه لبيئة التعلم في هذا البحث.

1 – الأسس السيكولوجية (Psychological):

تمثل الأسس السيكولوجية النظرة إلى كيفية حدوث التعلم التى يتبناها مصمم بيئة التعلم، فهى كما يعرفها “هانافين” وزملاؤه (Hannafin et al. ، 1997) تتضمن مجموعة المداخل المعرفية والمداخل البنائية للتعلم، فتبنى أحد تلك المداخل يؤثر في تصميم بيئة التعلم، ومع ذلك يوجد أربعة توجهات (Heinich et al. ، 1999 ، p. 16) فى النظرة إلى التعلم هى: التوجه السلوكى الذى تمخض عنه التعليم المبرمج، والتوجيه المعرفى الذى يهتم باستقبال ومعالجة المعلومات وتخزينها واستخدامها وتنمية المهارات العقلية العليا في شكل استراتيجيات مثل التفكير والمهارات العقلية وحل المسائل، وهى التى يعتمد عليها المتعلم فى التعليم الفردي والذاتى، والتوجه البنائى وهو التحول من سلبية المتعلم الاستقبالية في معالجة المعلومات إلى الإيجابية في الكشف والبحث وتكوين المعرفة بطريقة شخصية في إطار اجتماعى ثقافي وتطبيقها في واقع اكتشافها، ويهتم هذا التوجه بالتعلم الحقيقي ( Authentic) فى التعلم والتطبيق في مواقف حقيقية، وأخيراً التوجه الاجتماعي للتعلم وذلك لأهمية التفاعل الاجتماعي والبيئة الاجتماعية للتعلم ونمو الاهتمام بالتعلم التعاونى والتعلم التشاركى، ويلخص “هينش” وزملاؤه أثر تلك التوجهات في تصميم التعليم وبيئة التعلم فى أن السلوكيين يهتمون بالضبط الخارجى والظروف الخارجية في بيئة التعلم، بينما يهتم المعرفيون التقليديون بالمعالجة الداخلية للتعلم واستقبال المعرفة، ويهتم البنائيون بالمعالجة الإيجابية النشطة في الكشف والخبرة الشخصية للتوصل إلى المعرفة، وأخيراً يهتم الاجتماعيون بدور التراكيب الاجتماعية في التعلم مثل التعلم التعاوني والتشاركى والتنافسى، ثم استخلص “هينش” وزملاؤه (Heinich et al. ، 1999 ، p. 16) مجموعة من الأسس العامة من تلك التوجهات لخلق بيئة أفضل للتعلم: (1) التفاعل والمشاركة الإيجابية للمتعلم في خبرات ذات معنى، (2) الممارسة والتطبيق والتعلم بالعمل، (3) الفروق الفردية، (4) الاهتمام بالتدعيم والتغذية الراجعة،(5) السياق الواقعى الحقيقى للتعلم، وأخيراً (6) التعلم التعاونى.

2 – الأسس التعليمية /التدريسية (Pedagogical):

وتستمد هذه الأسس من طرائق التعليم / التدريس التى يتم بها تنفيذ التعلم في بيئة التعلم، فهى كما يعرفها “هانافين” وزملاؤه (Hannafin et al. ، 1997) تضم الاستراتيجيات والنماذج التعليمية التى يتم بها تحقيق نوع التعلم المطلوب، ويرى الباحث أنه يمكن الاستفادة من تلك بالنماذج التى قدمتها “جويس” و”ويل” (Joyce & Weil ، 1980) حيث أنها تضم مجموعة كبيرة من أسس التعليم / التدريس، وقد اهتم “هانافين “وزملاؤه ((Hannafin et al. ، 1997 بمجموعتين من المداخل التعليمية هما : مجموعة مداخل التعليم الموجه (Directed Instruction) وهى التى تقوم على التحديد الواضح للأهداف والتنظيم الهرمى لها واختيار أنشطة تعلمها من مواد ومصادر التعلم، ويتم فيها استخدام طرائق مثل مرتكزات التعليم (Anchored Instruction) والاستقصاء القائم على السقالات (Scaffolded Inquiry) بالإرشاد والتوجيه للمتعلم أثناء التعلم، ومجموعة مداخل التعلم البنائى وهى التى تقوم على ضرورة تزويد المتعلم بأدوات ومصادر تعلم تساعده على خلق واكتشاف أو إعادة اكتشاف المعرفة والمعنى إطار ثقافى اجتماعى، وبالتالى يدور نشاط المصمم التعليمي حول خلق تلك البيئات للمتعلم النشط .
ويلاحظ أن الأسس التعليمية التدريسية ترتبط مباشرة بالأسس السيكولوجية، فالاستراتيجيات التعليمية القائمة على الموضوعية (Objectivism) ترتبط بالمداخل المعرفية التقليدية للتعلم في معالجة المعلومات، أما النماذج البنائية مثل التعلم الموقفى فترتبط بالمداخل البنائية للتعلم.

3 – الأسس التكنولوجية (Technological):

تستمد هذه الأسس التكنولوجية لبيئة التعلم من المعرفة بعناصر تكنولوجيا التعليم وتشمل معرفة إمكاناتها ومحدداتها وكيفية استخدامها لدعم التعلم في بيئة التعلم، ويوضح “هانافين” وزملاؤه (Hannafin et al. ، 1997) أن كل بيئة تعلم يتم توفير ما يناسبها من مواد ووسائط ومصادر تعلم في ضوء ما لها من إمكانات وتستخدم بالكيفية التى تتكامل بها تلك الإمكانات مع شروط وخصائص التعلم، لذا يؤكد على أن توفير التكنولوجيات التعليمية تفيد أو تثرى بيئة التعلم إذا تكاملت إمكاناتها والطريقة التى تستخدم بها مع أسس نموذج التعليم/ التدريس المناسب، ويتفق ذلك مع ما يراه فتح الباب عبد الحليم (1991، ص7) من وجوب فهم العلاقة بين التكنولوجيا وطريقة التعليم وعملية التعلم.

4 – الأسس الثقافية (Cultural):

تشتق الأسس الثقافية لتصميم بيئات التعلم من القيم والمرامي والمعتقدات التى تظهر على مستوى المجتمع ككل حول وظيفة التربية والتدريس والتعليم، فهى كما يعرفها “هانافين” وزملاؤه (Hannafin et al. ، 1997) كل ما يتصل بالقيم التى تحكم السياق الذى يتم فيه التعلم، فالاهتمام الاجتماعي بدور التكنولوجيا وتكنولوجيا المعلومات والاتصالات أدى إلى النمو في توظيف تكنولوجيا التعليم في المؤسسات التعليمية وأولويات استخدامها، كما أن تبنى المجتمع لتوجهات تعليمية معينة ينعكس على تصميم التعليم وبيئات التعلم، ويضرب “هانافين” وزملاؤه (Hannafin et al ، 1997) مثلاً لذلك عندما اتجه المجتمع إلى أهمية العودة إلى الأساسيات في التعليم (Back to Basics)، اتجه تصميم بيئات التعلم إلى الاهتمام الدقيق بتحديد المعرفة الأساسية المطلوبة للفرد، والتدريب العملى الميدانى، فاتجه التعليم الطبى إلى الاهتمام بالمهارات المهنية والمعرفة اللازمة للتطبيب، والاهتمام بالتدريب قبل التخرج في المستشفيات (فترة الامتياز)، والخلاصة هى أن تصميم بيئة التعلم يعد انعكاساً وامتداداً لتوجهات الثقافة ونظرة المجتمع إلى التربية ووظيفتها.

5 – الأسس البرجماتية (Pragmatic )

ترتبط الأسس البرجماتية في تصميم بيئات التعلم بالاهتمام المتزايد بالاعتبارات العملية لما نريد أن نعلمه، فهى كما يوضحها “هانافين” وزملاؤه (Hannafin et al. ، 1997) تتصل باعتبارات تقدير الكلفة والعائد في تصميم بيئات التعلم، وكذلك تقويم البدائل التعليمية وعمل دراسات الجدوى، ويتمشى ذلك مع الآراء التى تؤكد على ضرورة مراعاة النواحى الاقتصادية في توظيف تكنولوجيا التعليم (فتح الباب عبد الحليم، 1991، ص68؛ على محمد عبد المنعم، 1997، ص52؛ محمد سيف الدين فهمي، 1991، ص47-48)، ويؤكد “هانافين” وزملاؤه على أن تبنى معظم المستحدثات التكنولوجية في تصميم نظم وبيئات التعلم يتأثر بتلك الأسس البرجماتية، فالأسس التكنولوجية تحدد ما هو متاح فى ضوء الإمكانات، كما تحدد كيفية استخدامه؛ بينما تعكس الأسس والاعتبارات البرجماتية المدى الذى يمكن الاختيار منها، فى ضوء تقدير الكلفة، والعائد.

 

 أهمية التصميم التعليمي :

كما أشار لها كل من ( الحيلة، 2003: 28)، و( ملحس و سرحان، 2007: 140-142) كما يلي :
1- إن أهمية علم التصميم التعليمي تكمن في محاولته بناء جسر يصل بين العلوم سواء العلوم النظرية من جهة (نظريات علم النفس العام وبخاصة نظريات التعلم، والعلوم التطبيقية (استعمال الوسائل التكنولوجية في عملية التعلم).
2- يزيد التصميم التعليمي من احتمالية فرص نجاح المعلم في تعليم المادة التعليمية: حيث أن القيام بعملية التصميم (التخطيط والدراسة المسبقة) للبرامج التعليمية من شأنها أن تتنبأ بالمشكلات التي قد تنشأ عند تطبيق البرامج التعليمية، وبالتالي محاولة العمل على تلافيها قبل وقوعها، فالتصميم عملية دراسة ونقد وتحويل وتطوير للبرامج، ومن شأنه أيضاً أن يجنب المستخدم لهذه الصورة صرف النفقات الباهظة، والوقت والجهد اللذان قد يبذلا في تطبيق البرامج التعليمية بشكل عشوائي.
3- يعمل تصميم التعليم على توفير الوقت والجهد: بما أن التصميم عبارة عن عملية دراسة ونقد وتعديل وتغيير؛ لذا فإن الأساليب والممارسات التعليمية الضعيفة أو الفاشلة يمكن حذفها في أثناء التصميم وقبل الشروع المباشر بتطبيقها، فالتصميم والتخطيط المسبق يتمثل في اتخاذ القرارات المناسبة المتعلقة باستعمال الطرق التعليمية الفعالة التي تؤدي إلى تحقيق الأهداف المرغوب فيها.
4- يعمل تصميم التعليم على تسهيل الاتصالات والتفاعل والتناسق: وذلك بين الأعضاء المشتركين في تصميم البرامج التعليمية وتطبيقها مع التقليل من المنافسات غير الشريفة أو غير المجدية.
5- يقلل تصميم التعليم من التوتر: والذي قد ينشأ بين المعلمين من جراء التخبط في إتباع الطرق التعليمية العشوائية لذا فتصميم التعليم من شأنه أن يقلل من حدة هذا التوتر بما يزود به المعلمين من صور وأشكال ترشدهم إلى كيفية سير العمل داخل غرفة الصف.

خطوات ومراحل التصميم التعليمي:

وأشار أبو داود ( 2010م ، ص 30-53) وتعتمد غالبية نماذج التصميم التعليمي في إنشائها على النموذج العام ADDIE وهذا الاختصار مكون من الحروف الأولى للمصطلحات التي تشكل المراحل الخمس التي يتألف منها النموذج وهي:

ملخص مراحل النموذج العام للتصميم التعليمي

1- مرحلة التحليل Analysis:
مرحلة التحليل هي حجر الأساس لجميع المرحل الأخرى لتصميم التعليم، وخلال هذه المرحلة لابد من تحديد مجموعة من مدخلات النظام وهي :
1- تحليل الحاجات التعليمية :
الاحتياجات التعليمية هي الفجوة بين ما يعرفه الطلاب والمهارات التي نريد أن يكتسبونها والدافع من تحديد هذه الاحتياجات ليتم التأكد من أنهُ هناك حاجة لما سيتم تصميمه كما أن تحديد هذه الفجوة يجعلنا نواكب التغيرات والتطورات الحديثة في مجال العلم .
4. تحليل خصائص المتعلمين:
يسعى المصمم التعليمي هنا إلى اكتشاف خصائص المتعلمين ومعرفتها ، كمهارات المتعلمين ومعارفهم السابقة ، وخصائصهم النفسية والمتمثلة بميولهم ودوافعهم واتجاهاتهم نحو المادة وخلفية المتعلمين الاجتماعية ، كما يهتم المصمم التعليمي بمعرفة الخصائص البدنية للمتعلمين كقدراتهم الحسية وأعمارهم . فذلك يساعد على تحديد مستوى الخبرات التعليمية والأنشطة المناسبة لها ويساهم في اختيار استراتيجيات التعليم.
3- تحليل المصادر والامكانات:
و هي معرفة الموارد المختلفة التي تسهل عمليات التصميم والتطوير والتنفيذ والتقويم *- ومنها المصادر المتاحة: وخطة التعليم وظروف الموقف التعليمي ، والموارد البشرية ، وتشمل كفايات المعلمين وخبراتهم بالإضافة إلى توفر المختصين بالتقنيات التربوية بالمدرسة أو الإدارة.
*- وكذلك الامكانات: وتشمل الدعم الإداري والتشجيع المعنوي ونوعية العلاقات الإدارية ، والموارد المالية ، وتشمل الأماكن وأنواع الأجهزة ونظمها بالإضافة إلى المعدات والخامات اللازمة للإنتاج والتنفيذ .
4- تحليل المحتوى :
هذه الخطوة تساعد على تحديد المهام الثانوية أو الفرعية التي يجب أن يقوم بها المتعلم لتحقيق المهمة الرئيسية أو الهدف التعليمي ، حيث نقوم بداية بتحليل المحتوى وتجزئته إلى حقائق ومفاهيم ومبادئ وإجراءات ثم يتم تنظيمها في تسلسل منطقي (من السهل إلى الصعب ، ومن المحسوس إلى المجرد).

2- مرحلة التصميم Design:
وتهتم هذه المرحلة بوضع المخططات والمسودات الأولية لتطوير عملية التعليم، وفي هذه المرحلة يتم وصف الأساليب والإجراءات والتي تتعلق بكيفية تنفيذ عمليتي التعليم والتعلم( أي توضع المواصفات بشكل ورقي، وترجمة التحليل إلى خطوات واضحة قابلة للتنفيذ)، وتشمل مجموعه من الخطوات :
1- صياغة الأهداف الإجرائية والخاصة .
2- تحديد المحتوى التعليمي واختيار التسلسل المناسب. 3- بناء الاختبارات.
4- اختيار الإستراتيجية التعليمية. 5- اختيار عناصر الوسائط المتعددة
6- اعداد السيناريو 7- اجراء التقويم التكويني لمخطط التصميم.
فالتقويم التكويني Formative Evaluation: وهو تقويم مستمر أثناء كل مرحلة وبين المراحل المختلفة، ويهدف إلى تحسين التعليم والتعلم قبل وضعه بصيغته النهائية موضوع التنفيذ.

3- مرحلة التطوير ((Development:
ويتم في مرحلة التطوير ترجمة مخرجات عملية التصميم من مخططات وسيناريوهات إلى مواد تعليمية حقيقية، فيتم في هذه المرحلة تأليف وإنتاج مكونات الموقف أو المنتج التعليمي، وخلال هذه المرحلة يتم تطوير التعليم وكل الوسائل التعليمية التي ستستخدم فيه، وأية مواد أخرى داعمة ،وإجراء عملية التقويم التكويني قبل إخراج النسخة النهائية .
4- مرحلة الاستخدام( التنفيذ )(Implementation):
ويتم في هذه المرحلة القيام الفعلي بالتعليم، سواء كان ذلك في الصف الدراسي التقليدي، أو بالتعليم الإلكتروني، أو من خلال برمجيات الكمبيوتر، أو الحقائب التعليمية، أو غيرها ، وتهدف هذه المرحلة إلى تحقيق الكفاءة والفاعلية في التعليم، ويجب في هذه المرحلة أن يتم تحسين فهم الطلاب، ودعم إتقانهم للأهداف ، وتشتمل هذه المرحلة على إجراء الاختبار التجريبي والتجارب الميدانية للمواد والتحضير للتوظيف على المدى البعيد، ويجب أن تشمل هذه المرحلة التأكد من أن المواد والنشاطات التدريسية تعمل بشكل جيد مع الطلاب، وأن المعلم مستعد وقادر على استخدام هذه المواد، ومن المهم أيضا التأكد من تهيئة الظروف الملائمة من حيث توفر الأجهزة وجوانب الدعم الأخرى المختلفة ، أي استخدام المنتج في البيئة التعليمية على الفئة المستهدفة .

5- مرحلة التقويم Evaluatation:
وفي هذه المرحلة يتم قياس مدى كفاءة وفاعلية عمليات التعليم والتعلم، والحقيقة أن التقويم يتم خلال جميع مراحل عملية تصميم التعليم، أي خلال المراحل المختلفة وبينها وبعد التنفيذ أيضاً، ( أي يتم الحكم على المنتج ) ، وقد يكون التقويم تكوينياً أو ختامياً:
فالتقويم الختامي Summative Evaluation: ويكون في العادة بعد تنفيذ الصيغة النهائية من التعليم والتعلم، ويقيم هذا النوع الفاعلية الكلية للتعليم، ويستفاد من التقويم النهائي في اتخاذ قرار حول شراء البرنامج التعليمي على سبيل المثال أو الاستمرار في التعليم باستخدامه أو التوقف عنه.
• نماذج التصميم التعليمي:
تحتاج عمليات التصميم التعليمي إلى نماذج توضح العلاقات بين مكوناتها ، وتساعد على فهمها مما يستدعي إلقاء الضوء على ما يلي:

مفهوم أنموذج التصميم التعليمي :

النموذج في اللغة :
مثال الشيء أي صورة تتخذ على مثال صورة الشيء ليعرف الحال منه وقد ورد لفظ أٌنموذج –بضم الهمزة-بنفس المعنى وهو ما يدل على صفة الشيء .
النموذج في الاصطلاح :
النموذج يعرفه السميري (1997م، ص9):بأن هو توقع وتنبؤ نظري مفصل لنظام معين وأنه مجموعة من الخطط لبناء يراد إنجازه أو رسومات و تخطيطات لبناء تم انجازه بالفعل ، وأنه تصميم لموضوع ما
كما يعرفها خميس (2006 ، ص44) تصور عقلي مجرد لوصف الإجراءات والعمليات الخاصة بتصميم التعليم وتطويره ، والعلاقات التفاعلية المتبادلة بينهما ، وتمثيلها إما كما هي أو كما ينبغي أن تكون ، وذلك بصورة مبسطة في شكل رسم خطي مصحوب بوصف لفظي يزودنا بإطار عمل توجيهي لهذه العمليات والعلاقات وفهمها ، وتنظيمها ، وتفسيرها ، وتعديلها ، واكتشاف علاقات ومعلومات جديدة فيها .
• دور النماذج في التصميم التعليمي:
إن النماذج تعلب دور كبير في التصميم التعليمي وتخدمه في أربعة أغراض: (أنجلين ، 2004 ، ص229) .
1. تحسين التعليم والتدريس عن طريق خصائص حل المشكلة والتغذية الراجعة لأسلوب النظم.
2. تحسين إدارة التصميم والتطوير التعليمى بطريق المراقبة والتحكم فى وظائف الاتجاه النمطى .
3. تحسين عمليات التقييم بواسطة المكونات المصممة وترتيب الأحداث بما في ذلك مراحل الاسترجاع والمراجعة المتأصلة في نماذج التصميم التعليمي النمطي .
4. اختيار أو بناء نظرية تعلم وتدريس عن طريق تصميم قائم على نظرية داخل نموذج تصميم تعليمى نمطى .
وغالبا ما يستفيد رجال التعليم عامة والمصممون التعليميون تحديدا من نموذج التصميم التعليمى “كنوع من “خطة عمل” فى جهودهم فى التطوير وتؤكد هذه الخطة للمعلم أن كل جزئية تعليمية مستخدمة سيكون لها عناصر يمكن إدراكها بخلاف المضمون.

 خصائص أنموذج التصميم الجيد :

يمكن تحديد ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎئص ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍلتصميم ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺩ كالتالي :
ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﻟﻠﻭﺍﻗﻊ :ﻓﺎﻟﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ، ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﻟﻪ، إما كما هو أو كما ينبغي أن يكون
وكلما كان التمثيل صادقا كان النموذج جيدا .
ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﻓﻲ تمثيل الواقع: ﻭعرﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ المطلوبة ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ بينها، ﻭﺇبرازها ﻓـﻲ شكل بسيط يسهل فهمه.
النظامية : فالتصميم ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻫﻭ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ نظامية ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ، ﻗائمة ﻋﻠـﻰ حل المشكلات لتحقيق أهداف محددة ، فالنموذج الجيد هو الذي يعرض المكونات والعمليات بطريقة منظمة تساعد على فهم العمليات والعلاقات وتفسيرها واكتشاف معلومات جديدة.
ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺡ:ﻓﺎﻟﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺩ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ يشرح ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ، يشكل يسهل ﻓﻬﻤﻪ وتفسيره.
الاتساق الداخلي : بمعنى أن تكون جميع مكوناته متسقة ومنسجمة مع بعضها البعض ، دون تناقض أو تعارض بينها.
ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻭل: بمعنى أن يشتمل على جميع العمليات والعلاقات والعوامل المؤثرة فيها لعرض صورة متكاملة عن العملية والنظام يساعد على فهمها وتفسيرها .
التعميم : بالرغم من أن المصمم قد يعد نموذجا لعملية أو مشروع بعينه إلا أنه ينبغي ﺃﻥ يكون قادرا على تعميم العمليات ، بحيث يمكن تطبيقها في عمليات ومشروعات أخرى مشابهه .
التجريد : بالرغم من أن النموذج هو تمثيل للواقع إلا أن هذا التمثيل يكون مجردا ، ويشتمل على مفاهيم ومبادئ نظرية عديدة ورموز مجردة مما يتطلب خلفية خاصة ، لفهم دلالات هذه الرموز والمفاهيم والنظريات المتضمنة فيه.
ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ: بمعنى أن يقتصد النموذج في العمليات والعلاقات قدر الإمكان بحيث يقتصر على المتغيرات المطلوبة فقط.
التحديد الواضح : بحيث يكون للنموذج حدود ومحددات واضحة بشأن استخدامه وتطبيقه .
التأصيل : بمعنى أن يقوم النموذج على أصول نظرية واضحة من نظريات التعليم والتعلم وألا يتناقض مع البيانات التجريبية.
ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻌﻴﺔ: إذ ينبغي أن يكون للنموذج فائدة نفعية من حيث تنظيم البيانات في شكل له معنى ، والعمل على تحقيق نواتج محددة تهدف إلى تحسين فعالية التعليم وكفاءته.
ﺍلقابلية للتطبيق : فبالرغم من أن نماذج التصميم تهدف إلى تحقيق المثالية إلا أنها يجب أن تكون قابلة للتصميم لكي يكون لها نفع وفائدة.

المراجع :

  1. أبو داود، سمية محمد. (2010م). ” فاعلية برمجية تعليمية مقترحة لتنمية مهارات إعداد الوسائط المتعددة لطالبات الدبلوم العام في التربية” ، رسالة ماجستير، جامعة الملك سعود ، الرياض: السعودية. تاريخ تحديث الرابط 14/2/2016م http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/sabudawood/Documents/Publications/Master%20Theses.pdf
  2. أبو سويرح، أحمد إسماعيل .(2009) .” برنامج تدريبي قائم على التصميم التعليمي في ضوء الاحتياجات التدريبية لتنمية بعض المهارات التكنولوجية لدى معلمي التكنولوجيا: ” دراسة في المناهج وطرق التدريس ، رسالة ماجستير ، كلية التربية، الجامعة الإسلامية ، غزة.
  3. أنجلين ، جاري : تكنولوجيا التعليم: الماضي والحاضر والمستقبل ، تأليف: Gary J. Anglin ، ترجمة: صالح بن مبارك الدباسي ، بدر بن عبد الله بن حمد الصالح ، جامعة الملك سعود، الرياض ، سنة النشر: 2004
  4. الجزار، عبد اللطيف الصفى (2006، 16-17) التصميم التعليمى لبيئة التعلم لتوظيف تكنولوجيا التعليم، كلية البنات للآداب والعلوم والتربية ، جامعة عين شمس . تاريخ تحديث الرابط 14/2/2016م http://gazzar-tech.com/5.doc
  5. الحيلة ، محمد . ( 2003) .”تصميم التعليم نظرية وممارسة” ، مكتبة الرشد ، الرياض .
  6. السميري ، لطيفة .( 1997 م) . ” النماذج في بناء المناهج ” ، دار عالم الكتب : الرياض ، ط1.
  7. قطامي ، يوسف . ( 2004). ” أساسيات في تصميم التعليم ” ،مكتبة الرشد ، الرياض .
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