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آي بي إم تطور نظام ذكاء اصطناعي يجادل البشر ويتغلب عليهم

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ابتكرت آي بي إم IBM نظام ذكاء اصطناعي يحمل اسم Debater Project، وهو مصمم للدخول في مناظرات مع البشر من خلال تقديم حجج مترابطة وقوية في موضوع ما، مع قدرته الفائقة على معالجة مجموعات كبيرة من البيانات حول موضوع المناظرة.

ظهر نظام Debater Project لأول مرة في حدث أقيم بمقر شركة آي بي إم IBM في مدينة سان فرانسيسكو، والذي كان عبارة عن جهاز بطول 6 قدم مزود بشاشة في الجزء العلوي بها دوائر زرقاء متحركة وهذه الدوائر تتحرّك بينما يقوم النظام بمعالجة الخطاب أو يستمع إلى معارضيه.

وقد قام النظام بإجراء مناظرتين متتالييتن مع اثنين من البشر هما نوا عوفاديا ودان ظافرير الذين لديهم سجل حافل من المناقشات الفائزة، وكان موضوع المناظرة الأولى حول ما إذا كانت برامج استكشاف الفضاء التي تقوم بها الشركات الخاصة يجب أن يتم دعمها حكوميًا أم لا، وموضوع الثانية حول زيادة استخدام وسائل الرعاية الطبية عن بعد Telemedicine.

قدم كل طرف حججًا تؤيد وجه نظره، وترد على ادعاء الطرف الآخر، كما يحدث عادة في الجدل بين طرفين مختلفين، لكن الجديد أن الطرف الأول كان إنسان والطرف الثاني كان نظام ذكاء اصطناعي طورته شركة IBM.

فازت المجادلة نوا عوفاديا بحكم حشد من الصحفيين في مسألة تقديم الحجة -حيث إن محاولات نظام الذكاء الاصطناعي في الفكاهة لم ترق إلى مستوى شخصية الإنسان- ولكن نظام الذكاء الاصطناعي الذي قدمته IBM تجاوز عوفاديا بكل تأكيد في مسألة إثراء المعرفة.

وكان نظام IBM أفضل في المناظرة الثانية التي تمت بينه وبين المحاور دان ظافرير التي كان موضوعها حول زيادة استخدام وسائل الرعاية الطبية عن بعد Telemedicine وفي نهاية المناظرة فاز الإنسان على النظام ولكن هذه المرة بفارق بسيط، وكان النظام متفوقًا بشكل ملحوظ في مجال إثراء المعرفة، وتسبب في تغيير وجهة نظر تسعة على الأقل من أعضاء الجمهور حول الموضوع.

في كل من هاتين المناظرتين القصيرتين لم يتم إطلاع المتحاورين سواء البشر أو نظام الذكاء الاصطناعي على المواضيع مسبقًا، وكان لدى كل طرف أربع دقائق لإلقاء كلمة افتتاحية يليها أربع دقائق أخرى لإثبات وجهة نظره ثم خاتمة للموضوع مدتها دقيقتين. وكانت البداية في كل مرة مع النظام.

كان حدث سان فرانسيسكو هو المرة الأولى التي يتمكن فيها أي شخص خارج شركة  آي بي إم من مشاهدة نقاش حي بين الإنسان ونظامها للذكاء الاصطناعي. ولكن باحثي آي بي إم كانوا يجرون مناقشات في المعمل منذ فترة، حول موضوعات مثل “هل يجب أن تكون ضرائب الدخل موجودة؟”، “هل ستساعد السيارات ذاتية القيادة على زيادة معدلات السلامة؟” و “هل ينبغي استخدام المضادات الحيوية في إمداداتنا الغذائية؟”

من خلال سحابة التخزين الإلكترونية التابعة لشركة آي بي أم قام نظام الذكاء الاصطناعي بفحص مليارات الجمل ليقدم رأي متماسك ومقنع حول الموضوعات المختلفة. ثم يستمع النظام إلى خطاب منافسه ثم يرد عليه، وبعد ذلك ينهي حديثه بحجة مقنعة، وبهذا تمكن النظام من التعامل مع نوع من الجدل كان حتى وقت قريب بعيدًا عن متناول الآلات.

من جهته قال أرفيند كريشنا مدير قسم الأبحاث في آي بي إم: “نحن نعتقد أن إتقان اللغة هو مجال أساسي يجب على أنظمة الذكاء الاصطناعي تجاوزه، فهناك جوانب يقوم بها الذكاء الاصطناعي حاليا مثل التعرف على الكلام، وتحويل الخطاب إلى نص. ولكن هذه الأنظمة ليست جيدة بما يكفي فيما يخص الفهم السمعي أو بناء خطاب يمكن أن يكون منطوقًا أو مكتوبًا، كما أنه لا يستطيع فهم الفوارق الدقيقة في سياق الكلام، بمعنى عدم القدرة على تمييز ما يدعم اقتراحًا ما أو ما قد يكون ضد هذا الاقتراح”.

كبرى شركات التقنية مثل آي بي إم وآبل وجوجل ومايكروسوفت وفيسبوك كانوا من بين أولئك الذين شاركوا في سباق عالي المخاطر من أجل تطوير تقنيات الذكاء الاصطناعي .

ولكن قدرة نظام الذكاء الاصطناعي على التنافس بشكل مقنع في مناظرة ضد إنسان -وسعيه إلى الفوز في إثبات وجه نظره- من المرجح أن تؤكد المخاوف التي عبّر عنها كل من إيلون ماسك الرئيس التنفيذي لشركتي تيسلا وسبيس إكس وعالم الفيزياء الراحل ستيفن هوكينج بأن الذكاء الاصطناعي يمكن أن يدمر الحضارة الإنسانية.

ولإعطاء شكل ملموس لتلك المخاوف ابتكر مؤخرًا الباحثون في معهد ماساتشوستس للتكنولوجيا نظام ذكاء اصطناعي مريض نفسيًا يُدعى نورمان نسبةً إلى الشخصية المخيفة الأساسية في فيلم الإثارة الكلاسيكي للمخرج ألفريد هيتشكوك سايكو Psycho، وقد تم تدريب خوارزمياته من خلال عرض نصوص وصور مزعجة عن الموت بطرق بشعة والتي تم العثور عليها على موقع ريديت Reddit، مما أثر على هذا النظام وجعله يتصرف كأنه مريض نفسي.

وقد علق أرفيند كريشنا مدير قسم الأبحاث في آي بي إم حول المخاوف المحتملة لأنظمة الذكاء الاصطناعي قائلاً: “إنني انظر لذلك بطريقة مختلفة حيث إن المعدل الهائل للتكنولوجيا وسرعتها اليوم قد جعلنا نتلقى كمية هائلة من المعلومات من جميع أنواع المصادر، فهل هناك شيء أثق أنه يمكن أن يعطيني وجهتي النظر حول نفس الموضوع؟ فهذه الأنظمة تستطيع أن تحدد لي إيجابيات وسلبيات موضوع ما، وهذا يتيح لي تشكيل رأيي الخاص بكل سهولة”.

وأضاف كريشنا: “كما هو الحال في المناظرات الحقيقية، يمكن أن تلعب الفكاهة والتجارب الشخصية دورًا جيدًا في إقناع المستمعين بسهولة، فالمناظرات لا تعتمد على سرد الحج المنطقية فقط، ولا تزال أنظمة الذكاء الاصطناعي غير قادرة على محاكاة ذلك، فعندما يستطيع المنافس البشري أن يستعين بحكاية أو تجربة شخصية فإن النظام الذي يشترك معه في المناظرة لا يستطيع أن يتفاعل معها”.

إذن ما هي حالات الاستخدام في الحياة الواقعية لأنظمة الذكاء الاصطناعي التي يمكنها النقاش؟ ذكر كريشنا بعض الأمثلة لاستخدام هذه الأنظمة مثل المشرعين الذين يناقشون القضايا الحرجة، أو المحامين الذين يعدون الخطب. وقد يستفيد الطلاب أو رجال الأعمال من مناقشة أنظمة الذكاء الاصطناعي للمساعدة في إبداء الرأي.

شاهدنا قبل ذلك أجهزة الكمبيوتر الخاصة بشركة آي بي إم IBM computers تهزم البشر في الشطرنج في عام 1997، وهزمتهم أيضًا في مسابقة Jeopardy للمعلومات العامة عام 2011، وفي عام 2017 هزم الذكاء الاصطناعي البشر مرة أخرى بعد تغلب نظام ألفاجو AlphaGo الذي طورته مختبرات ديب مايند التابعة لشركة جوجل على بطل العالم في لعبة جو Go شديدة التعقيد والذكاء.

وها هي أنظمة الذكاء الاصطناعي تحقق اليوم انتصارًا جديدًا على البشر من خلال منافسة أكثر دقة بكثير في مجال النقاش، حيث أثبتت التجربة أن آلات الذكاء الاصطناعي يمكن أن تتعلم مهارات كانت حكرًا على البشر فقط مثل المجادلة.​

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