القائمة الرئيسية

المبادئ العشرة للتعليم والتعلم الإلكتروني

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في عام 2005، كتب الأستاذان Anderson و McCormic بحثاً بعنوان “الإطار العام لجودة التعلم الإلكتروني والمبادئ التربوية العشرة للتعلم الإلكتروني الناجح”، حيث قاما بوصف أساليب تطوير برامج فعالة للتعلم الإلكتروني.

يؤكد الكاتبان أن هذه المبادئ العشرة من شأنها أن تساعد مصممي مقررات التعلم الإلكتروني على بناء مواد تعليمية تقوم على أساس تربوي سليم، ثم ربطها بأنشطة تعلم فعالة. على الجانب الآخر، تساعد هذه المبادئ المعلمين على اختيار الموارد المناسبة، وتصميم أنشطة التعليم والتعلم الملائمة وفقا لهذه الموارد، بالإضافة إلى تعزيز تلك الأنشطة عند القيام بها.

ينطلق كل من Anderson و McCormick في بحثهما من افتراض ضمني، يعني في مجمله أن مستوى جودة الجانب التربوي في العملية التعليمية يتوقف على مدى ترجمة هذه المبادئ على أرض الواقع، فكلما زاد التمسك بهذه المبادئ؛ كلما كانت جودة الجانب التربوي أعلى، والعكس بالعكس. ويمكن تعريف “التربية” بأنها تلك الممارسات التي تعمل على صياغة خبرة التعلم بدءً من البنية التأسيسية، ومروراً بتصميم المقررات التعليمية، وانتهاءً بعملية التدريس. كما يؤكد الكاتبان على تفاعل المتعلمين في العملية التعليمية كأهم مبدأ تربوي يجب توافره عند القيام بالعملية التعليمية وما يكتنفها من أنشطة مختلفة.

ومن هنا، فإن التعلم لا يتم أبدا بمنأى عن تفاعل المتعلمين، فالمتعلم السلبي الذي لا يتفاعل مع العملية التعليمية يؤدي إلى محدودية نتائج التعلم. وبناء عليه، فإن برامج التعلم الإلكتروني الناجح لا بد أن تمنح الطلاب دورا فعالا في عملية التعلم. وسوف نستكشف في الأسطر التالية المبادئ التربوية للتعلم الإلكتروني كما يطرحها الكاتبان، ونعرض كيفية تطبيقها من خلال منصة التعلم.

I: التناغم بين التربية والمقرر التعليمي:

لا بد أن يتوافق المبدأ التربوي ويتناغم مع المقرر التعليمي، ويتم ذلك من خلال عوامل أهمها وضوح الأهداف، وترابط المحتوى التعليمي، ومدى ملائمة الأنشطة الطلابية، وطبيعة ونوع التقييم.

II: الاستيعاب:

لا بد أن يعزز المبدأ التربوي ما يطلق عليه الممارسة الاستيعابية، بمعنى أن تحفز التربية ممارسات الاستيعاب من حيث احتواء جوانب الإنجاز بأنواعها ومجموعاتها المختلفة، والاحتياجات الخاصة للمعاقين والتي يمكن دعمها على وجه الخصوص من خلال التعلم الإلكتروني، بالإضافة إلى المجموعات العرقية والاجتماعية المختلفة.

III: تفاعل المتعلم:

لا بد أن تعمل التربية على تحقيق تفاعل وتحفيز المتعلم للمشاركة في العملية التعليمية. كما ينبغي أن تنعكس هذه المشاركة وذلك التفاعل بوضوح في شكل روح مفعمة بالرغبة في التعلم والتحفيز عليه.

تفاعل عالي

 

تفاعل منخفض

التركيز على الطالب التركيز على المعلم
ديمقراطي استبدادي
تعلم بنائي تعلم تلقيني
متعلم إيجابي متعلم سلبي
متفاعل مشاهد
انتقائي إجباري
المشاركة الواعية نظام التجميع
تحت السيطرة آلي

IV: اتباع أساليب ابتكارية:

يتضح هذا المبدأ جليا عند الوقوف على أسباب استخدام تقنيات التعلم، والتغاضي عن الأساليب التقليدية والعتيقة والتي قد تؤدي إلى تحقيق نفس النتائج. باختصار، لا بد أن يكون التعلم الإلكتروني صالحا للأغراض التي يستعمل من أجلها.

V: التعلم الفعال:

يتضح هذا المبدأ جليا بطرق عدة، من بينها استخدام أساليب متعددة في منصة التعلم مما يسمح للطالب باختيار المقرر الذي يناسبه، أو المقرر الذي يمكن تخصيصه وفقا لاحتياجاته، أو عن طريق ممارسة بعض سمات التعلم الجيد (فاعلية المتعلم، استقلالية المتعلم، تمكين التعاون البيني أو التحفيز عليه.)

VI: إجراء التقييم التكويني:

التقييم التكويني من أهم أعمدة وركائز المنهج التربوي في التعلم.

VII: إجراء التقييم الختامي:

من أهم صفات التقييم الختامي الصحة والموثوقية، وأن يكون مفهوما من قبل المعملين، والمتعلمين، وأولياء الأمور، وأن يعالج سلسلة متنوعة من مستويات الإنجاز، كما يجب أن يخلو من التأثير الوجداني على المتعلم.

VIII: التماسك والاتساق:

لا بد أن يكون الأسلوب متماسكا، ومتسقا فيما يتعلق بالأهداف، والمحتوى، والأنشطة الطلابية، ومستوى التوافق بينها وبين التقييم. كما يجب أن يتسم تصميم الأسلوب التربوي بالانفتاح والإتاحة.

IX: سهولة الاستخدام والشفافية:

ينبغي أن يتسم التعلم الإلكتروني بالشفافية وسهولة الاستخدام.

X: التناسب بين التكلفة والمردود:

لا بد أن تكون الحلول التقنية لها ما يبررها، وأسعارها معقولة، ويمكن تحمل أعباء تكاليفها على المدى الطويل.

باختصار، عند اختيار منصة ما للتعلم الإلكتروني، وتصميم المقررات، والقيام بالعملية التعليمية وفقا للمبادئ التربوية العشرة المطروحة هنا، تتمكن المؤسسات التعليمية من استغلال التقنية لتحقيق رسالتها بأقل تكاليف، مع ضمان أعلى مستويات الاعتمادية، باستخدام نموذج تعليمي واسع الانتشار.

المصدر:

تحدث الكاتب عن اهم ما ورد في بحث للاستاذان Anderson و McCormic وهي عشرة مبادئ لأفضل مقررات تعليم الكتروني يجب الالتزام بها. حيث قام الاستاذ وليد جميل عرض هذه النقاط العشرة ببساطة واختصار حيث تدور هذه النقاط حول الحقيقة الكبيرة وهي (التعليم الالكتروني لن ينجح إلا بعد ان يتيح مساحة لتفاعل الطالب معها)

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